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UPVC  Pipes

About Rendifield UPVC Pipe

(All tables are best viewed in tablet-mode or on a computer/laptop)

The unique properties of PVC can be enhanced by the addition of special additives, for example, to create strong yet tough pipe materials such as modified PVC, foamed multilayer sewer and drainage pipes, and weather resistant, above ground rainage pipes.

These additives, as well as heat stabilisers and lubricants, which are necessary to facilitate the extrusion of the pipes, are added to the PVC raw material in a special high speed mixer to produce a dry blend specially formulated for the pipe extrusion process.

During the manufacture of the pipe the dry blend is mixed in the extruder and through a combination of heat and shear, the material is ‘gelled’ into a homogeneous molten mass ready for passage through the die and calibrator to form a pipe which has tight tolerances in terms of the outside diameter, wall thickness and mechanical properties.

It should be noted that in recent years heat stabilisers and lubricants have been changed from lead based compounds to alternative, environmentally friendly materials such organic and calcium/zinc compounds.

RENDIFIELD MINING AND INDUSTRIAL PIPING SOLUTIONS has been used successfully in Southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand for over 15 years and is proven as one of the most cost effective and energy efficient piping materials.

The reason for this is the lower long-term safety factor which may be used with tough materials.

Toughness can be defined as resistance to impact and resistance to cracks, i.e. toughness prevents cracks from starting [initiation] and also prevents the propagation of cracks through the pipe wall. Cracks or notches may be initiated during handling or installation or during service due to bending stresses and point loads on the pipe. Brittle failure does not occur with tough materials having predictable failure properties; therefore the material’s toughness bears a direct relationship with the long-term safety factor.

It is now accepted by pipe standards authorities and by the water industry that the 50 year safety factor depends as much on strength as it does on Pipe Standards toughness. Tough materials fail by predictable ductile yielding and hence allow the use of lower safety factors. Thus the 50 year safety factor relates to the type of material and its properties; HOPE has much lower strength than PVC-U but has higher toughness, hence a safety factor of 1.25.

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UPVC Pipe composition

Composition of PVC Pipe Materials Polyvinyl Chloride or PVC is one of the most versatile types of pipe materials. It is produced
by the polymerisation of vinyl chloride which is made from coal [or oil) and common salt. In fact, salt makes up over 50% of the polymer, thus making PVC one of the most environmentally friendly plastic materials. being least dependent on increasingly scarce hydrocarbon resources.
The unique properties of PVC can be enhanced by the addition of special additives, for example, to create strong yet tough pipe materials such as modified PVC [PVC-M], foamed multilayer sewer and drainage pipes, and weather resistant, above ground drainage pipes. These additives, as well as heat stabilisers and lubricants, which are necessary to facilitate the extrusion of the pipes, are added to the PVC raw material in a special high speed mixer to produce a dry blend specially formulated for the pipe extrusion process.
During the manufacture of the pipe the dry blend is mixed in the extruder and through a combination of heat and shear, the material is ‘gelled’ into a homogeneous molten mass ready for passage through the die and calibrator to form a pipe which has tight tolerances in terms of the outside diameter, wall thickness and mechanical properties.
It should be noted that in recent years heat stabilisers and lubricants have been changed from lead based compounds to alternative, environmentally friendly materials such organic and calcium/zinc compounds.

UPVC Pipe physical properties

(All tables are best viewed in tablet-mode or on a computer/laptop)

The unique properties of PVC can be enhanced by the addition of special additives, for example, to create strong yet tough pipe materials such as modified PVC, foamed multilayer sewer and drainage pipes, and weather resistant, above ground rainage pipes.

These additives, as well as heat stabilisers and lubricants, which are necessary to facilitate the extrusion of the pipes, are added to the PVC raw material in a special high speed mixer to produce a dry blend specially formulated for the pipe extrusion process.

During the manufacture of the pipe the dry blend is mixed in the extruder and through a combination of heat and shear, the material is ‘gelled’ into a homogeneous molten mass ready for passage through the die and calibrator to form a pipe which has tight tolerances in terms of the outside diameter, wall thickness and mechanical properties.

It should be noted that in recent years heat stabilisers and lubricants have been changed from lead based compounds to alternative, environmentally friendly materials such organic and calcium/zinc compounds.

RENDIFIELD MINING AND INDUSTRIAL PIPING SOLUTIONS has been used successfully in Southern Africa, Australia and New Zealand for over 15 years and is proven as one of the most cost effective and energy efficient piping materials.

The reason for this is the lower long-term safety factor which may be used with tough materials.

Toughness can be defined as resistance to impact and resistance to cracks, i.e. toughness prevents cracks from starting [initiation] and also prevents the propagation of cracks through the pipe wall. Cracks or notches may be initiated during handling or installation or during service due to bending stresses and point loads on the pipe. Brittle failure does not occur with tough materials having predictable failure properties; therefore the material’s toughness bears a direct relationship with the long-term safety factor.

It is now accepted by pipe standards authorities and by the water industry that the 50 year safety factor depends as much on strength as it does on Pipe Standards toughness. Tough materials fail by predictable ductile yielding and hence allow the use of lower safety factors. Thus the 50 year safety factor relates to the type of material and its properties; HOPE has much lower strength than PVC-U but has higher toughness, hence a safety factor of 1.25.

Major properties of PVC pressure and sewer and drain pipes are given in the table below. Please note that as with all thermoplastics, properties are dependent on the operating temperature and the duration of the stress application. For example, working pressures of pipes used at higher temperatures should be lowered [or a higher class to be used] in order to maintain the long-term design life of the pipe.

 

PHYSICAL UNITS PVC-U PVC-M
Co-Efficient of Linear Expansion k-1 6 X 10-5 6 X 103
Density Kg/m3 1.4 X 103 1.1.J X 103
Flammability [oxygen index] % 45 45
Shore Hardness [DJ 70-80 70-80
Softening Point [Vicat- minimum] “C > 80 > 80
Specific Heat J/Kg/K 1.0 X 103 1.0 X 103
Thermal Conductivity [D”C-SO”C] W/m/K 0.14 0.14
MECHANICAL
Elastic Modulus [long term: 50 years] MPa 1500 1400
Elastic Modulus [short term: 100 seconds] MPa 3300 3000
Elongation at break [Minimum] % 45 45
Poisons Ratio 0.4 0.4
Tensile Strength [50 year – extrapolated] MPa 26 26
Tensile Strength [short-term / Minimum] MPa 45 45
FRICTION FACTORS
Manning 0.008-0.009

0.008-0.009

 

Hazen Williams 150

150

 

Nikuradse Roughness [k] mm 0.03 0.03

 

 

UPVC Pipe Applications

Water supply

Below-ground pressure applications for the conveyance of potable water in reticulation systems and for other applications in which continuous temperatures in excess of 25 °C are not encountered

SANS 1283 High Impact – Suitable for the conveyance of non­potable water at temperatures between 5 °C and 50 °C for underground use in mines

Drainage pipes

Above ground drainage

SEWAGE

Sewerage under pressure

UPVC pipe dimensions

DIMENSIONS OF UPVC 2
UPVC PIP DIMENSIONS 1

p

UPVC Features

Environment-friendly & Lead­ free material
Durability and toughness
Resistant to acids and alkalis
Resistant to abrasion, scouring and modern cleaning methods
Inflammable: Does not support

PVC U 4
p

UPVC Benefits

Excellent flow characteristics: reduces friction losses
Best long-term strength [serves in excess of 50 years)
Long-term strength, toughness and stiffness
Large bore and high flow capacity
Light mass: for easy handling and installation
Elastomeric locked-in sealing ring system

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